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The study diseases the female urethra and bladder suffered from the same unfavorable circumstances that the practice obstetrics did.

For although the practice accouchement by men was common among the Indians, neither the Greeks nor the Arabs deemed worthy custom writing essay their care. Hippocrates causes the young physician swear never cut for stone himself, but leave this not very honorable operation the surgeons.

This contempt for certain surgical operations has survived until recent times and hence the organs in question were left the care midwives or untutored stone-cutters, who could contribute but little a scientific knowledge their abnormalities. Physicians even century did not hesitate practice uroscopy daily but they were ashamed display any surgical or obstetrical ability. Another cause found in the prolonged influence of Arabian medicine, which was undoubtedly unfavorable since well known that the Arabs regarded even the thought postmortem examination as sinful, and the practice obstetrics and gynecology men was forbidden their medicine.

And if they were compelled to treat maladies this class, midwives made their examinations and conducted their treatment.

Thus Kurt Sprengel declares that Abulkasem was the first declare the necessity cutting for stone in women.

He thinks the midwife necessary, since no surgeon would dare offend female modesty operating himself. But even when in century, the practice obstetrics men became the fashion in Paris, and spread thence over Europe, an ocular examination the female genitals was interfered with in every possible way, even the extent fastening a sheet around the necks the lying-in woman and the accoucheur, so that her modesty should not offended his gaze. The author himself has lately had occasion observe how long such prejudices survive, what do you need to write a good thesis statement when examining a young European woman being suggested him to introduce the speculum through a small hole in a sheet spread over the But in spite all these difficulties, the end the Middle Ages much progress had been made in the study the maladies are considering.

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Benevieni Florence had dilated the female urethra extract a stone. Rembert Dodoius Mechlin had demonstrated postmortem the existence sclerosis the kidney, enlargement the cali bre the ureter, and hypertrophy the bladder. Salius Diversus had described inflammation the ureters as a cause retention urine. Peter Franco G had figured a special dilator for the enlargement of the female urethra, and a gorget with forceps, whose arms would open in Several authors century proved necropsies the occurrence vaginal cystocele with prolapsus uteri. Felix Plater and Ludovicus Mercatus G first recognized the vesico-vaginal fistula, and writers for research papers Johann Fatio cured several them the quilled suture. Andreas a Laguna wrote a work entitled Methodus cognoscendi, exstirpandiqw excrescentes in vesicce callo carunculas, Rome, and another upon urethral strictures and their treatment means bougies.

Finally, Francesco Diaz Madrid, was the author an excellent monograph upon the diseases the bladder and kidneys. Thus have in esse catheters copper and silver Abulkasis, lithotrites the mythian-like instruments the post-Celsian times, dilators the research papers custom urethra and forceps for the extraction foreign bodies, bougies paper and metallic sounds Heliodorus. What then remained invent, and why were not the most recent exploratory methods, such as G-. Simon's gradual dilatation with specula, and Rutenberg's illumination the interior the bladder, discovered much sooner, since the ground was apparently prepared for them centuries ago ? It undoubtedly due, in addition the above-mentioned reasons, the absence instruction in gynecology, until late in century. Even to-day most gynecologists leave the bladder out consideration in connection with the female genitals, and at most describe urethral caruncles, displacements the bladder with the vaginal wall, and vesico-vaginal fistulas while the text-books internal medicine hardly mention the numerous specific affections the female urethra and bladder. We possess but a single monograph, published Scanzoni, upon diseases the female urinary passages and in his introduction the author rightly complains the neglect this branch special pathology the part the gynecologists. Scanzonrs book went through a second and last edition in therefore entirely incomplete to-day, though admission essay service shall often have occasion make use its admirable contents. But however useful and important historical studies may and however they may save from the error presenting as new what has already long been known, must admit that there are writers who can find the germ each and every medical discovery buy mba thesis in Hippocrates and Aretaus, and who can wonderfully elucidate and explain the dark and disputed points in their writings, as prove that all that living men have done rehash their material ! Ideas may often have been printed without having ever been carried out and the proper execution them often much more meritorious than an impracticable or dangerous idea.