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Dubois, following Schatz, introduced a metallic or elastic catheter into the bladder, and united means a rubber tube a glass tube some long.

The point the graduated index was placed at the symphysis, and the height the column urine gave the pressure. But soon found that the level the top the bladder did not always coincide with the symphysis, in one case reaching that point only when it contained cubic inches urine.

It was ascertained that the bladder pressure nearly a constant one, and independent age and sex.

It rises inch with each ordinary expiration, and falls again with expiration.

In the recumbent position, amounts standing is while laughter, coughing, or voluntary effort increases to Dubois believes that the pressure is not due the weight neighboring organs, but marks coursework writing services the tension exerted the elastic muscular bladder upon its contents. In proof thereof he demonstrated that after removing the organs from the abdominal cavity a suitable subject, a pressure was attained the tension the bladder alone. He also found that the pressure in the rectum is independent that in the bladder, since remains the same while the bladder pressure being diminished emptying the organ.

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In a case where the pressure in the abdominal cavity sank nothing after the evacuation a considerable amount ascitic fluid, that the bladder remained inches.

Finally, in a case cystocele vaginalis with prolapsus uteri, in which the influence the abdominal pressure was excluded, since even the deepest inspiration had no influence upon the height the column water, the pressure the bladder, which contained cubic inches urine, was.

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Of course the intraabdominal pressure theses and dissertations influences the bladder, and increased ascites and meteorism.

In myelitis and in fractures the spinal column, Dubois proved that there was a distinct diminution vesical pressure. But he always found a positive pressure even with absolute paralysis the bladder and the abdominal muscles. And could never, sudden and intermittent pressure, cause a negative pressure, as Odebrecht claims to have done. Dubois explains the entrance air into the bladder through the catheter, as being due variations in pressure the stream urine, which bubbles air pass between and the walls the catheter, and then ascend into the bladder. Hence the important practical rule in catheterization, not depress the handle the catheter too much and if manual pressure upon the abdomen used promote evacuation, the catheter must withdrawn before that pressure relaxed.

Odebrecht has, however, in one case demonstrated the existence a pressure less than that the atmosphere. Here the fundus vesicae was largely adherent neighboring portions the serosa, causing traction upon the bladder, and elongation the organ. The uterus was adherent the bladder. Experiments have shown that depressions the posterior custom term paper vaginal wall diminish the vesical pressure, since the descending uterus tends pull the bladder with It noted that the introduction a finger or a catheter into the rectum has the buy papers online cheap same effect. The escape gases and fluids cause the anterior rectal wall sink towards the posterior one, the uterus follows, and the consequent traction causes a We must then admit that possible have a negative pressure in the bladder but can seldom occur, and needs a number concomitant circumstances effect We may easily see that the examination of the vesical pressure in normal and in abnormal conditions the bladder may great importance its practise simple and easy, and does not entail any disagreeable consequences upon the patient. Finally, the bladder may examined percussion and auscultation. As Rutenberg has shown, the organ may very considerably inflated with air, without there being a tympanitic percussion note above the pubis. Marked dullness at that place and above depends upon the amount fluid custom term papers in the bladder, upon the position the organ, and upon the thickness phd research proposal writing service the abdominal walls. At its greatest distension the dullness reaches above the navel, and melon-shaped.